Task oriented versus relationship orientation

Detail-oriented people pull in lots of data, usually in regard to something that interests them, and pick it apart bit by bit like a wolf with a turkey leg. British Journal of Educational Psychology. History of behavior modification: Experimental foundations of contemporary research. "Integrating Social and Personal Theories of Achievement Striving". Teacher and Student Perception: Implications for Learning. "The effects of verbal reinforcement of intrinsic motivation for sex-linked tasks". If you do this in college in regard to essays you aren’treally passionate about, you’ll eventually acquire the skills you’ll use when you start doing something that you want to do. Some posit that younger children do not experience the negative effects of certain types of praise because they do not yet make causal attributions in complex ways, and they are more literal in their interpretations of adult speech. "Person versus process praise and criticism: Implications for contingent self-worth and coping". "The Effect of Rewards on Intrinsic Interest: Developmental Changes in the Underlying Processes". Evidence-based psychotherapies for children and adolescents. E.; Gumpert, P.; Canavan-Gumpert, D. Heine, Lehman, Markus & Katayama found that Canadian students persisted longer after positive than negative performance feedback, while the opposite was true for Japanese students. Even when they did, they usually only did it once, and subsequently turned in papers with tons of errors. Social-comparison praise has been hypothesized to decrease intrinsic motivation for the praised children because they may then view their behaviors as externally controlled. Still, there are many positives, the most significant of which being that many high level professions require an extreme amount of attention to the fine print. English versus British, either. This may be especially apparent for older children as they see effort and ability to be inversely related and thus an overemphasis on effort may suggest a lack of ability. "Identifying Common Elements of Evidence-Based Psychosocial Treatments for Children's Disruptive Behavior Problems". Culture has been referred to as a "blind spot" in the praise literature. In a study of children, Henderlong Corpus, Ogle & Love-Geiger found that social-comparison praise lead to decreased motivation following ambiguous feedback for all children, and also decreased motivation following positive feedback for girls only. Several complexities of informational versus controlling praise have been acknowledged. With all of the attention paid to random details and faces, this really shouldn’t be a surprise.Detail-oriented people are always calculating, usually analyzing you as soon as you walk in the door, picking you apart mentally. "The empirical exploration of intrinsic motivational processes". They remember incredibly random details that nobody else does.I swear, there are moments when I feel like Sherlock Holmes out in the real world. Stated briefly, independent cultures, common in Western cultures, generally value and seek to promote individualism and autonomy, while interdependent cultures promote fundamental connectedness and harmony in interpersonal relationships. This all goes down within the first few seconds of meeting you.I suppose this lends credence to that whole “first impressions” thing. "By All Available Means: Cameron and Pierce's Defense of Extrinsic Motivators". The theory that informational praise enhances self-determination over controlling praise has been supported by several empirical studies. In Advances in experimental social psychology. Their ability to remember faces extends to real life too!This summer I went back east to visit family for the first time in two years. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. "Developmental study of praise and blame as attributional cues". Contrastingly, praise may create negative emotional consequences if it appears disingenuous or manipulative. Think Isaac Newton.I’m not saying you should go out and start writing notes down every time you see anything slightly odd. In a study of person- versus process-oriented praise, Kamins and Dweck found that children who received person-oriented praise displayed more "helpless" responses following a failure including self-blame, than those in the process condition. "The semantics of praise".

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. That being said, retaining all of this seemingly random stuff could definitely prove to be useful in a future job interview, or date. However, controversy exists over whether providing children with social-comparison praise has beneficial impact on their motivation and performance. "Effects of externally mediated rewards on intrinsic motivation". Noticing all of the little details in life isn’t always beneficial, as I’ll demonstrate to you. They can instantly match faces and voices seen and heard on television to a particular actor.This one is fun. Chris; Abel, Dawn M.; Sergio, Joseph P. Thus, Deci & Ryan suggest that the effect of praise is moderated by the salience of informational versus controlling aspects of praise.

Social comparison is a psychological process that is widely prevalent, particularly so in educational settings. However, to develop this skill, you should definitely put effort into being constantly aware of your surroundings, making a mental checklist of things you find interesting or out of the ordinary. Though these studies demonstrate the possible positive influence of social-comparison praise, they have been criticized for inadequate control groups. Weisz, John R.; Kazdin, Alan E.

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. Looking through this cultural lens, clear differences in the use and impact of praise can be found. Lastly, praise may serve to influence interpersonal relations. Henderlong Corpus and Lepper found that process praise was more beneficial to motivation than person praise, but only for girls.

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. When I play the classics like Knights of the Old Republic, I listen for them there as well, and usually I find them!To master this fun little skill for yourself requires a crazy attention to detail that most don’t bother with. Kamins, Melissa L.; Dweck, Carol S. In that database, he collected a smorgasbord of information, such as the type of ship, how many slaves were in each, which ports they departed from and arrived at, the person who sold them once they disembarked in the Caribbean, etc. Praise may be more or less effective in changing behavior depending on its form, content and delivery. Henderlong and Lepper suggest that person-oriented praise may function like tangible rewards, in that they produce desired outcomes in the short-run, but may undermine intrinsic motivation and subsequent perseverance. International Journal of Behavioral Development. Task oriented versus relationship orientation. However, praise has also been argued to define standards and expectations, which in turn may motivate an individual to exert effort to meet those standards. This attributional style can foster more adaptive reactions to both success and failure. This cultural difference has also been found experimentally. "The differential effects of tangible rewards and praise on intrinsic motivation: A comparison of cognitive evaluation theory and operant theory". "Sex differences in learned helplessness: II. The contingencies of evaluative feedback in the classroom and III. In addition, it is often difficult to determine the extent to which informational, controlling, or both, which may muddy interpretations of results. The concept of praise as a means of behavioral reinforcement is rooted in B.F. Through this lens, praise has been viewed as a means of positive reinforcement, wherein an observed behavior is made more likely to occur by contingently praising said behavior. In addition, most social-comparison studies do not examine motivation or behavior following a subsequent unsuccessful task. Praise is also thought to convey that one has surpassed a noteworthy evaluative standard, and if the recipient of the praise is likely to experience a sense of pleasure stemming from a positive self-perception. Following a failure, the person-praised students displayed less task persistence, task enjoyment, and displayed worse task performance than those praised for effort. Praise is distinct from acknowledgement or feedback, which are more neutral forms of recognition, and encouragement, which is more future oriented. Skinner's model of operant conditioning. I think you get the idea though. In a different study, Henderlong found that for older children, process praise enhanced post-failure motivation more so than person praise, and person praise decreased motivation as compared to neutral feedback. The function of praise on child performance and motivation may likely vary as a function of age. Although the majority of early research on the influences of praise focused on behavior implications, more recent investigations have highlighted important implications in other domains.

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. While there, I visited many of the same places I had gone to on my previous trip. Even though I’d consider myself to be a detail-oriented person, I’d pay much more attention to the former project than the latter. Relationship with a sociopath. Interestingly, this difference was found for older children, but not preschool-aged children. The function of praise on child behavior and motivation has also found to vary as a function of child gender. Education and Treatment of Children. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. They are great at discerning different types of accents.Now, I don’t mean to say that detail-oriented people are any good at doing accents. Indeed, I had a fairly concrete process. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. I would write, proofread, sleep on it, read it again, and then read it aloud. Review of Educational Research. Yet, there is reason to believe that cultural differences in the effects of praise exist. Alternative views of the effects of praise on motivation exist. Gender differences may be attributable to normative socialization practices, in which people generally emphasize dependence and interpersonal relationships for girls, but achievement and independence for boys. Contrastingly, for preschool-age children process praise enhanced post-failure motivation more than person praise, but both were better than neutral feedback. They are insanely good at reading people’s emotions and intentions.As socially inept as I pretend to be, I’m very good at reading people, and I suspect this is the case for many detail-oriented people. "Young children's understanding of a speaker's intentional use of a false utterance". L.; Koestner, R.; Ryan, R. "The self-worth theory of achievement motivation: Findings and implications". It is thought that the mutual praise may serve to increase attraction and strengthen the interpersonal relationship, and this process may underlie the use of praise in ingratiation. Strain, Phillip S.; Lambert, Deborah L.; Kerr, Mary Margaret; Stagg, Vaughan; Lenkner, Donna A. For example, a control group given feedback that they are average may be seen as negative, rather than neutral. An experimental analysis". For example, praising children for their personal attributes, rather than specifics about their performance, may teach them to make interferences about their global worth, and may thus undermine their intrinsic motivation. Thus, mastery praise may be more conducive than social-comparison to fostering intrinsic motivation, particularly for females, though more research is needed to tease apart these relationships. Few studies have directly examined developmental differences in praise, though some evidence has been found. "Independence-supportive praise versus interdependence-promoting praise". Acknowledging the effect of praise as a positive reinforcement strategy, numerous behavioral and cognitive behavioral interventions have incorporated the use of praise in their protocols. Garland, Ann F.; Hawley, Kristin M.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Hurlburt, Michael S. "Informational versus Controlling Verbal Rewards". Colonial History, over something like Medieval Russian History. "Evidence-based Practices in Classroom Management: Considerations for Research to Practice". I’m talking about that obscure actor who showed up twice on LOST and played henchman number two. Thus, the long-term negative consequences of person-oriented praise are still unclear. Social Comparison and Education. The influence of praise on an individual can depend on many factors, including the context, the meanings the praise may convey, and the characteristics and interpretations of the recipient. When you are passionate about something, you’re going to want to make sure it succeeds, which means you’ll try your best to ensure that no aspect of it fails. Only by compiling thousands of pages worth of data, and asking himself several notebook’s worth of critical questions, was my professor able to make the conclusions that he did.This sort of combines a bunch of the points I made earlier. First, though the differences between information and controlling praise have been well-established, it is difficult to determine whether the net effects of these forms of praise will be positive, negative or neutral compared to a control condition. Some have posited that this gender difference is due to girls more often attributing failure to lack of ability rather than a lack of motivation or effort. These findings are in line with personal theories of achievement striving, in which in the face of failure, performance tends to improve when individuals make attributions to a lack of effort, but worsen when they attribute their failure to a lack of ability. They’re just proficient at discerning one accent from another, and not something simple like Southern U.S. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. "Culture and the self: Implications for cognition, emotion, and motivation". Hillsdale: N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. For the most part, the people working at these stores/ice cream shops were the same as were there before, and I instantly recognized them.I’m not sure why or how I keep track of all these random people; it probably has to do with my introverted nature. Others have found young girls to be more negatively influenced by the evaluations of adults more generally. Educating hearts and minds: Reflections on Japanese preschool and elementary education. In one camp, praise is thought to decrease intrinsic motivation by increasing the presence of external control. "Attributional Focus of Praise and Children's Intrinsic Motivation: The Moderating Role of Gender". This amazed me, as I literally felt a compulsion to read my work several times over. They always proofread their work several times over.I was always astounded in college by the fact that most of my classmates rarely proofread their work