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These episodes are observed with fighter pilots experiencing very rapid and intense acceleration that result in lack of sufficient blood supply to the brain. Suddenly finding oneself back inside one's body. The NDE would then represent evidence of the supposedly immaterial existence of a soul or mind, which would leave the body upon death. These reports “were corroborated with actual and real events”.

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Since a baby travels from the darkness of the womb to light and is greeted by the love and warmth of the nursing and medical staff, and so, it was proposed, the dying brain could be recreating the passage through a tunnel to light, warmth and affection. This model suffers from a number of limitations to explain NDEs for subjects who do not experience a sensation of being out of their bodies; unlike NDEs, experiences are dreamlike, unpleasant and characterized by "anxiety, panic and emptiness". A wide range of physiological theories of the NDE have been put forward including those based upon cerebral hypoxia, anoxia, and hypercapnia; endorphins and other neurotransmitters; and abnormal activity in the temporal lobes. Receiving a life review, commonly referred to as "seeing one's life flash before one's eyes". Heightened brain activity has been recorded in experimental rats directly following cardiac arrest, though there has been no similar research in humans. Many common elements have been reported, although the person's interpretation of these events often corresponds with the cultural, philosophical, or religious beliefs of the person experiencing it. Relationship near me.

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. Sam Parnia also refers to two cardiac arrest studies and one deep hypothermic circulatory arrest study where patients reported visual and/or auditory awareness occurring when their brain function had ceased. Such experiences may encompass a variety of sensations including detachment from the body, feelings of levitation, total serenity, security, warmth, the experience of absolute dissolution, and the presence of a light. Under extreme circumstances some people may detach from certain unwanted feelings in order to avoid experiencing their emotional impact and suffering associated with them. He reported being able to watch and recall events during the time of his cardiac arrest. NDEs are associated with changes in personality and outlook on life.

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. The NDE-scale was later found to fit the Rasch rating scale model. Different models have been described to explain NDEs.Neuroscience research suggests that an NDE is a subjective phenomenon resulting from "disturbed bodily multisensory integration" that occurs during life-threatening events. Parnia and colleagues investigated out-of-body experience claims by placing figures on suspended boards facing the ceiling, not visible from the floor. Another flaw of this model can be found in children’s accounts of NDEs. For instance, they may visit or view dark and depressing areas or are accosted by what seem to be hostile or oppositional forces or presences. Neurobiological factors in the experience have been investigated by researchers in the field of medical science and psychiatry. "Near death" redirects here. Other authors suggest that all components of near-death experiences can be explained in their entirety via psychological or neurophysiological mechanisms, although the authors admit that these hypotheses have to be tested by science. Another psychological theory is called the expectancy model. One of the two patients was too sick and the accuracy of her recount could not be verified. Likewise Greyson writes that although some or any of the neuroanatomical models proposed may serve to explain NDEs and pathways through which they are expressed, they remain speculative at this stage since they have not been tested in empirical studies. In two different studies of patients who had survived a cardiac arrest, those who had reported leaving their bodies could describe accurately their resuscitation procedures or unexpected events, whereas others “described incorrect equipment and procedures”. According to this model, those who face their impending death become detached from the surroundings and their own bodies, no longer feel emotions, and experience time distortions. Although this is a small sample, the failure of purported out-of-body experiencers to describe the hidden targets raises questions about the accuracy of the anecdotal reports described above. The person also detaches from one's immediate surroundings. Greyson Bush, former Executive Director to the International Association for Near-Death Studies, holds that not all negative NDE accounts are reported by people with a religious background. French said that at least some reports of NDEs might be based upon false memories. Also, during NDEs subjects remain very lucid of their identities, their sense of identify is not changed unlike those experiencing depersonalization. However, studies are difficult to interpret since NDEs have been observed both with increased levels as well as decreased levels of carbon dioxide, and finally some other studies have observed NDEs when levels had not changed, and there is little data. This was also the first time the phenomenon was described as clinical syndrome. Parnia writes that no data has been collected via thorough and careful experimentation to back "a possible causal relationship or even an association" between neurochemical agents and NDE experiences. Relationship like tom and jerry. The dissociation model proposes that NDE is a form of withdrawal to protect an individual from a stressful event. This represented the first attempt to provide a taxonomy of such experiences, viewed simply as anomalous perceptual experiences, or hallucinations. Common traits that have been reported by NDErs are as follows: A sense of peace, well-being and painlessness. Also, hypoxic hallucinations are characterized by "distress and agitation" and this is very different from near death experiences which subjects report as being pleasent. Connection to the cultural beliefs held by the individual, which seem to dictate some of the phenomena experienced in the NDE and particularly the later interpretation thereof. A perception of one's body from an outside position, sometimes observing medical professionals performing resuscitation efforts. Subjects’ accounts often differed from their own “religious and personal expectations regarding death” which contradicts the hypothesis they may have imagined a scenario based on their cultural and personal background. NDEs are a recognized part of some transcendental and religious beliefs in an afterlife. The only exception is the more frequent description of a tunnel. According to Parnia, neurochemical models are not backed by data. The symptoms suppose a primary affliction of the occipital and temporal cortices under clinical death. This is true for "NMDA receptor activation, serotonin, and endorphin release" models. According to Greyson some NDE phenomena cannot be easily explained with our current knowledge of human physiology and psychology. Approaching a border or a decision by oneself or others to return to one's body, often accompanied by a reluctance to return. This basis could be congruent with the thesis of pathoclisis-the inclination of special parts of the brain to be the first to be damaged in case of disease, lack of oxygen, or malnutrition-established eighty years ago by Cécile and Oskar Vogt. Some investigators have studied whether hypercarbia or higher than normal carbon dioxide levels, could explain the occurrence of NDEs. The accuracy of claims of visual and auditory awareness was examined using specific tests. In contrast to common belief, Kenneth Ring argues that attempted suicides do not lead more often to unpleasant NDEs than unintended near-death situations. For instance, at a time when they were unconscious patients could accurately describe events as well as report being able to view their bodies “from an out-of-body spatial perspective”. Relationship anarchy. Encountering "Beings of Light", "Beings dressed in white", or similar. However, not all after-effects are beneficial and Greyson describes circumstances where changes in attitudes and behavior can lead to psychosocial and psychospiritual problems. These are similar to adults’, and this despite children being less affected by religious or cultural influences about death. IANDS is an international organization that encourages scientific research and education on the physical, psychological, social, and spiritual nature and ramifications of near-death experiences. A sense of moving up, or through, a passageway or staircase. Also, the possibility of being reunited with deceased loved ones. This would be coherent with endorphins' role in causing a "positive emotional tone of most NDEs". An out-of-body experience. Among its publications are the peer-reviewed and the quarterly newsletter Vital Signs. Subjects use their own personal and cultural expectations to imagine a scenario that would protect them against an imminent threat to their lives. French summarizes this model by saying : "the most popular interpretation is that the NDE is exactly what it appears to be to the person having the experience". “This did not appear consistent with hallucinatory or illusory experiences, as the recollections were compatible with real and verifiable rather than imagined events”. An NDE would then provide information about an immaterial world where the soul would journey upon ending its physical existence on earth. In a way, they are similar to wish-fulfillment: because someone thought they were about to die, they experienced certain things in accordance with what they expected or wanted to occur. In fact, some of these core elements have even been reported by children.

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. Persons having bad experiences were not marked by more religiosity or suicidal background. According to Parnia, near death experiences’ interpretations are influenced by religious, social, cultural backgrounds. Melvin Morse, head of the Institute for the Scientific Study of Consciousness, and colleagues have investigated near-death experiences in a pediatric population. Psychologist Chris French wrote regarding the study "unfortunately, and somewhat atypically, none of the survivors in this sample experienced an OBE". A "tunnel experience" or entering a darkness. One patient had a conventional out of body experience. The latter scale is also, according to its author, clinically useful in differentiating NDEs from organic brain syndromes and non-specific stress responses. His claims were confirmed by hospital personnel. However, the core elements appear to transcend borders and can be considered universal. Dating to marriage. Also, newborns do not possess “the visual acuity, spatial stability of their visual images, mental alertness, and cortical coding capacity to register memories of the birth experience”. A sense of removal from the world. NDEs have been recorded since ancient times. The first formal neurobiological model for NDE, included endorphins, neurotransmitters of the limbic system, the temporal lobe and other parts of the brain. They concluded that future neuroscientific studies are likely to reveal the neuroanatomical basis of the NDE which will lead to the demystification of the subject without needing paranormal explanations. Psychologist James Alcock has described the afterlife claims of NDE researchers as pseudoscientific. Also G-LOC episodes do not feature life reviews, mystical experiences and "long-lasting transformational aftereffects", although this may be due to the fact that subjects have no expectation of dying. The birth model suggests that near death experiences could be a form of reliving the trauma of birth. admit that their model remains speculative to the lack of data. Reports of leaving the body through a tunnel are equally frequent among subjects who were born by cesarean section and natural birth. Some NDEs have elements that bear little resemblance to the "typical" near-death experience. Imagining a heavenly place was in effect a way for them to soothe themselves through the stress of knowing that they were close to death. According to Alana Karran, the NDE stages resemble the so-called hero's journey. When dating what is first base. These two patients' cardiac arrests did not occur in areas equipped with ceiling shelves hence no images could be used to objectively test for visual awareness claims. Four had experiences that, according to the study criteria, were NDEs but none of them were able to identify the figures. One such test consisted in installing shelves, bearing a variety of images and facing the ceiling, hence not visible by hospital staff, in rooms where cardiac-arrest patients were more likely to occur. They had been resuscitated after being clinically dead with no pulse, no respiration, and fixed dilated pupils