Long d relationship

The difference in the sales distribution is highly significant, even after controlling for consumer differences.

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. The adoption of video games and massively multiplayer online games such as Second Life as tools for education and training is starting to show a long-tailed pattern. Looked at from the producers' side, the long tail has made possible a flowering of creativity across all fields of human endeavour. According to the user-driven innovation model, companies can rely on users of their products and services to do a significant part of the innovation work. The total sales of this large number of "non-hit items" is called "the long tail". This fact has given rise to a keen scientific and social interest in such distributions, and the relationships that create them. It is important to understand why some distributions are normal vs. This created a niche market for those who enjoy books about mountain climbing even though it is not considered a popular genre supporting the long tail theory. At the end of the long tail, the conventional profit-making business model ceases to exist; instead, people tend to come up with products for varied reasons like expression rather than monetary benefit. Elberse defined head and tail using percentages, while Anderson uses absolute numbers. Anderson states the book got good reviews, but didn't have much commercial success. In Mexico the banks Compartamos and Banco Azteca also service this customer demographic, with an emphasis on consumer credit. The big website covers more variety while the small website has only a few niches to choose from. Long d relationship. A small number of very popular products still dominates the demand. The term has since been derived from an XY graph that is created when charting popularity to inventory. In his Wired article Anderson opens with an anecdote about creating a niche market for books on Amazon. This model can provide further predictions into markets with long-tail distribution, such as the basis for a model for optimizing the number of each individual item ordered, given its current sales rank and the total number of different titles stocked. As the opportunity cost goes down, the choice of TV programs grows and greater cultural diversity rises. The "crowds" of customers, users and small companies that inhabit the long-tail distribution can perform collaborative and assignment work. Chris Anderson argues that while quantities such as human height or IQ follow a normal distribution, in scale-free networks with preferential attachments, power law distributions are created, i.e. They then quantified the potential value of the long tail to consumers. Statements consisting only of original research should be removed. These purely digital retailers also have almost no marginal cost, which is benefiting the online services, unlike physical retailers that have fixed limits on their products. The specific cutoff of what part of a distribution is "long tail" is often arbitrary, but in some cases may be specified objectively; see segmentation of rank-size distributions. The long tail is a potential market and, as the examples illustrate, the distribution and sales channel opportunities created by the Internet often enable businesses to tap that market successfully. However, ten years later a book titled Into Thin Air by Jon Krakauer was published and Touching the Void began to sell again. But where the long tail works, minority tastes become available and individuals are presented with a wider array of choices. Before a long tail works, only the most popular products are generally offered. The model of crowdcasting, is the process of building a network of users and then delivering challenges or tasks to be solved with the purpose of gaining insights or innovative ideas. Similar results were published by Serguei Netessine and Tom F. It also is a business model that fills an important developmental role in an economy. The total volume of low popularity items exceeds the volume of high popularity items. Not all recommender systems are equal, however, when it comes to expanding the long tail. Anderson argues that products in low demand or that have a low sales volume can collectively make up a market share that rivals or exceeds the relatively few current bestsellers and blockbusters, if the store or distribution channel is large enough. Long d relationship. Smith, that showed that a significant portion of Amazon.com's sales come from obscure books that are not available in brick-and-mortar stores. This can, in turn, have the effect of reducing demand for the most popular products. Power law distributions or functions characterize an important number of behaviors from nature and human endeavor. Similarly, mass-market distributors like Blockbuster may be threatened by distributors like LoveFilm, which supply the titles that Blockbuster doesn't offer because they are not already very popular. A Wharton study details this phenomenon along with several ideas that may promote the long tail and greater diversity. In military thinking, John Robb applies the long tail to the developments in insurgency and terrorist movements, showing how technology and networking allows the long tail of disgruntled groups and criminals to take on the nation state and have a chance to win. The authors also look toward the future to discuss second-order, amplified effects of Long Tail, including the growth of markets serving smaller niches. Those economics of storage and distribution then enable the advantageous use of the long tail: for example, Netflix finds that in aggregate, "unpopular" movies are rented more than popular movies. In statistics and business, a of some distributions of numbers is the portion of the distribution having a large number of occurrences far from the "head" or central part of the distribution. Where the opportunity cost of inventory storage and distribution is high, only the most popular products are sold. Eric von Hippel of MIT's Sloan School of Management defined the user-led innovation model in his book Democratizing Innovation. Specifically, they find that the impacts of both positive and negative user reviews are weakened as product variety goes up. The crowdsourcing model, in which a company outsources work to a large group of market players using a collaborative online platform. Where inventory storage and distribution costs are insignificant, it becomes economically viable to sell relatively unpopular products; however, when storage and distribution costs are high, only the most popular products can be sold. There may be an optimal inventory size, given the balance between sales and the cost of keeping up with the turnover. They are also willing to pay higher interest rates than the standard bank or credit card customer. In following a long-tailed innovation strategy, the company is using the model to tap into a large group of users that are in the low-intensity area of the distribution.. Publishers utilize these ad exchange environments, such as Right Media or AdECN, to efficiently sell display inventory that might otherwise go unsold through direct sales force operations. The recipients of small credits tend to be very good payers of loans, despite their non-existent credit history. The key supply-side factor that determines whether a sales distribution has a long tail is the cost of inventory storage and distribution. Anderson responded by stating that the study's findings are difficult to assess without access to its data. Work performed by individuals in commons-like, non-market networks, described in the work of Yochai Benkler. They are willing to tell the manufacturer what they really want and how it should work. Chris Anderson's and Clay Shirky's articles highlight special cases in which we are able to modify the underlying relationships and evaluate the impact on the frequency of events. One example of this is YouTube, where thousands of diverse videos – whose content, production value or lack of popularity make them inappropriate for traditional television – are easily accessible to a wide range of viewers. These niche products open opportunities for suppliers while concomitantly satisfying the demands of many individuals – therefore lengthening the tail portion of the long tail. The banks that have followed this strategy of selling services to the low-frequency long tail of the sector have found out that it can be an important niche, long ignored by consumer banks. Note that there is no sense of "long tail" of a distribution, but only the of a distribution being long-tailed. Anderson realized that this was due to Amazon's recommendations. As opposed to e-tailers, micro-finance is a distinctly low technology business. These may not always attract the highest level of viewership, but their business distribution models make that of less importance. The competitive threat from these niche sites is reduced by the cost of establishing and maintaining them and the effort required for readers to track multiple small web sites. In this example, the cutoff is chosen so that areas of both regions are equal. An Amazon employee described the long tail as follows: "We sold more books today that didn't sell at all yesterday than we sold today of all the books that did sell yesterday." Anderson has explained the term as a reference to the tail of a demand curve. It costs significantly less to modify a game than it has been to create unique training applications, such as those for training in business, commercial flight, and military missions. Consumers' reliance on online user reviews to choose products is significantly influenced by the quantity of products available.

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. On his blog, Chris Anderson responded to the study, praising Elberse and the academic rigor with which she explores the issue but drawing a distinction between their respective interpretations of where the "head" and "tail" begin. The opportunities that arise because of the long tail greatly affect society's cultures because suppliers have unlimited capabilities due to infinite storage and demands that were unable to be met prior to the long tail are realized. On the supply side, the authors point out how e-tailers' expanded, centralized warehousing allows for more offerings, thus making it possible for them to cater to more varied tastes. These factors have been transformed by easy and cheap web site software and the spread of RSS. Among his conclusions is the insight that as innovation becomes more user-centered the information needs to flow freely, in a more democratic way, creating a "rich intellectual commons" and "attacking a major structure of the social division of labor". Dating game questions. For example, new items constantly enter most fashion markets. Although the distribution of sales may appear to be similar over time, the positions of the individual items within it will vary. The intersection of viral marketing, online communities and new technologies that operate within the long tail of consumers and business is described in the novel by William Gibson,. For for the term used in statistics, see Heavy-tailed distribution. The events at the far end of the tail have a very low probability of occurrence. A relationship-based model recognizes that the quality of. Smith, who first used a log-linear curve on an XY graph to describe the relationship between Amazon.com sales and sales ranking. He writes about a book titled Touching the Void about a near-death mountain climbing accident that took place in the Peruvian Andes. They found that a large proportion of Amazon.com's book sales come from obscure books that were not available in brick-and-mortar stores.

. These encourage the diversification of products. The most important shift in business model due to the long tail has come from the various forms of microfinance developed. Thus, the primary value of the internet to consumers comes from releasing new sources of value by providing access to products in the long tail. Buzz marketing: The strategic use of word of mouth and transmission of commercial information from person to person in an online or real-world environment. In statistics, the term long-tailed distribution has a narrow technical meaning, and is a subtype of heavy-tailed distribution. The internet can still sell physical goods, but at an unlimited selection and with reviews and recommendations. Companies can make use of a series of tools, such as interactive and internet based technologies, to give their users a voice and to enable them to do innovation work that is useful to the company. Pay per click and search engine optimization: The marketing of websites on search engines such as Google, Yahoo and Bing by focusing on long-tail keywords which have less competition. In other words, whereas traditional retailers have focused on the area to the left of the chart, online bookstores derive more sales from the area to the right.

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. Use of the phrase the long tail in business as "the notion of looking at the tail itself as a new market" of consumers was first coined by Chris Anderson.

For example, a traditional movie rental store has limited shelf space, which it pays for in the form of building overhead; to maximize its profits, it must stock only the most popular movies to ensure that no shelf space is wasted. Relationship lessons. They used a theoretical model to show how a reduction in search costs will affect the concentration in product sales. The term has also been used in the finance and insurance business for many years. The demand-side factors that lead to the long tail can be amplified by the "networks of products" which are created by hyperlinked recommendations across products. Sometimes an intermediate category is also included, variously called the , , , or. When the cost of inventory storage and distribution fall, a wide range of products become available. In situations where popularity is currently determined by the lowest common denominator, a long-tail model may lead to improvement in a society's level of culture. Smith finds that the long tail has grown longer over time, with niche books accounting for a larger share of total sales. This has led some to envision a time in which game-based training devices or simulations will be available for thousands of different job descriptions. The banking business has used internet technology to reach an increasing number of customers. Viral marketing: The intentional spreading of marketing messages using preexisting social networks, with an emphasis on the casual, non-intentional and low cost, commonly through YouTube videos, viral emails and standalone microsites. Tan, who suggest that head and tail should be defined by percentages rather than absolute numbers. An article titled "From Niches to Riches: Anatomy of the Long Tail" examined the long tail from both the supply side and the demand side and identifies several key drivers. Please improve it by verifying the claims made and adding inline citations. Some relevant forms of these new production models are: The peer-to-peer collaboration groups that produce open-source software or create wikis such as Wikipedia

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