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Some believe the Big Bang implies a creator, and some see its mention in their holy books, while others argue that Big Bang cosmology makes the notion of a creator superfluous. It would become denser and hotter again, ending with a state similar to that in which it started-a Big Crunch. The following is a partial list of the popular misconceptions about the Big Bang model: The Big Bang as the origin of the universe: One of the common misconceptions about the Big Bang model is the belief that it was the origin of the universe. This problem is also resolved by cosmic inflation, which removes all point defects from the observable universe, in the same way that it drives the geometry to flatness. The dark energy component of the universe has been explained by theorists using a variety of competing theories including Einstein's cosmological constant but also extending to more exotic forms of quintessence or other modified gravity schemes. Measurements of the redshift–magnitude relation for type Ia supernovae indicate that the expansion of the universe has been accelerating since the universe was about half its present age. On the contrary, the cosmological red-shift is based on general relativity, in which the expansion of space is considered. The average temperature of the universe would asymptotically approach absolute zero-a Big Freeze. However, observations suggest that the universe, including its most distant parts, is made almost entirely of matter. Future gravitational waves observatories might be able to detect primordial gravitational waves, relics of the early universe, up to less than a second after the Big Bang. Religious and philosophical interpretations Main article: As a description of the origin of the universe, the Big Bang has significant bearing on religion and philosophy. Indirect evidence for dark matter comes from its gravitational influence on other matter, as no dark matter particles have been observed in laboratories. However, special relativity does not apply beyond motion through space. Big e dating.

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. Proposals in the last two categories, see the Big Bang as an event in either a much larger and older universe or in a multiverse. This theory suggests that only gravitationally bound systems, such as galaxies, will remain together, and they too will be subject to heat death as the universe expands and cools. Jessie j relationship. It is not known what could have preceded the hot dense state of the early universe or how and why it originated, though speculation abounds in the field of cosmogony. Many particle physics candidates for dark matter have been proposed, and several projects to detect them directly are underway. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background indicate that the universe is very nearly spatially flat, and therefore according to general relativity the universe must have almost exactly the critical density of mass/energy. It is generally assumed that when the universe was young and very hot it was in statistical equilibrium and contained equal numbers of baryons and antibaryons. Still, it is known that the equations are not applicable before the time when the universe cooled down to the Planck temperature, and this conclusion depends on various assumptions, of which some could never be experimentally verified. Moreover, galaxies that formed relatively recently, appear markedly different from galaxies formed at similar distances but shortly after the Big Bang.

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. When the size of the universe at Big Bang is described, it refers to the size of the observable universe, and not the entire universe. During inflation, the universe undergoes exponential expansion, and the particle horizon expands much more rapidly than previously assumed, so that regions presently on opposite sides of the observable universe are well inside each other's particle horizon. Dark energy also helps to explain two geometrical measures of the overall curvature of the universe, one using the frequency of gravitational lenses, and the other using the characteristic pattern of the large-scale structure as a cosmic ruler. In the latter model the Big Bang was preceded by a Big Crunch and the universe cycles from one process to the other. A combination of observations and theory suggest that the first quasars and galaxies formed about a billion years after the Big Bang, and since then, larger structures have been forming, such as galaxy clusters and superclusters. These two clouds of gas contain no elements heavier than hydrogen and deuterium. The eventual result is not known. Some proposals, each of which entails untested hypotheses, are: Models including the Hartle–Hawking no-boundary condition, in which the whole of space-time is finite; the Big Bang does represent the limit of time but without any singularity. Very gradually, collisions between these would result in mass accumulating into larger and larger black holes. The measured abundances all agree at least roughly with those predicted from a single value of the baryon-to-photon ratio. In addition, the assumption that the universe is mostly normal matter led to predictions that were strongly inconsistent with observations. To explain this acceleration, general relativity requires that much of the energy in the universe consists of a component with large negative pressure, dubbed "dark energy".

Curvature is negative, if its density is less than the critical density; positive, if greater; and zero at the critical density, in which case space is said to be. Some of these mysteries and problems have been resolved while others are still outstanding. The prediction that the CMB temperature was higher in the past has been experimentally supported by observations of very low temperature absorption lines in gas clouds at high redshift. These objects would be produced efficiently in the hot early universe, resulting in a density much higher than is consistent with observations, given that no monopoles have been found. Moreover, if the proton were unstable, then baryonic matter would disappear, leaving only radiation and black holes. These fluctuations serve as the seeds of all current structure in the universe. The relative abundances depend on a single parameter, the ratio of photons to baryons. Other explanations of dark energy, called phantom energy theories, suggest that ultimately galaxy clusters, stars, planets, atoms, nuclei, and matter itself will be torn apart by the ever-increasing expansion in a so-called Big Rip. This value can be calculated independently from the detailed structure of CMB fluctuations. The Big Bang theory, built upon the equations of classical general relativity, indicates a singularity at the origin of cosmic time; this infinite energy density is regarded as impossible in physics. However, the Big Bang model does not comment about how the universe came into being. Since the clouds of gas have no heavy elements, they likely formed in the first few minutes after the Big Bang, during Big Bang nucleosynthesis. If inflation occurred, exponential expansion would push large regions of space well beyond our observable horizon. What follows are a list of the mysterious aspects of the Big Bang theory still under intense investigation by cosmologists and astrophysicists. These observations are strong arguments against the steady-state model. All these conditions occur in the Standard Model, but the effects are not strong enough to explain the present baryon asymmetry. You don't have permission to access / on this server. Current conception of the Big Bang model assumes the existence of energy, time, and space, and does not comment about their origin or the cause of the dense and high temperature initial state of the universe. Observations of star formation, galaxy and quasar distributions and larger structures, agree well with Big Bang simulations of the formation of structure in the universe, and are helping to complete details of the theory. The ΛCDM model of the universe contains dark energy in the form of a cosmological constant. Since theory suggests that dark energy does not cluster in the usual way it is the best explanation for the "missing" energy density. Dating test. The observed isotropy of the CMB then follows from the fact that this larger region was in causal contact before the beginning of inflation. Dating without a title. Observations have found this to be roughly true, but this effect depends on cluster properties that do change with cosmic time, making precise measurements difficult. There would then be no mechanism to cause wider regions to have the same temperature. Although similar, the cosmological red-shift is not identical to the Doppler redshift. Ultimate fate of the universe Main article: Ultimate fate of the universe Before observations of dark energy, cosmologists considered two scenarios for the future of the universe. The entropy of the universe would increase to the point where no organized form of energy could be extracted from it, a scenario known as heat death. Physics may conclude that time did not exist before 'Big Bang', but 'started' with the Big Bang and hence there might be no 'beginning', 'before' or potentially 'cause' and instead always existed. As a result, it has become one of the liveliest areas in the discourse between science and religion. This prediction also implies that the amplitude of the Sunyaev–Zel'dovich effect in clusters of galaxies does not depend directly on redshift. In particular, the universe today is far more lumpy and contains far less deuterium than can be accounted for without dark matter. Therefore, matter made up a larger fraction of the total energy of the universe in the past than it does today, but its fractional contribution will fall in the far future as dark energy becomes even more dominant. If the mass density of the universe were greater than the critical density, then the universe would reach a maximum size and then begin to collapse. The symmetry is the largest symmetry possible and hence the lowest entropy of any state. Negative pressure is believed to be a property of vacuum energy, but the exact nature and existence of dark energy remains one of the great mysteries of the Big Bang. Additionally, there are outstanding problems associated with the currently favored cold dark matter model which include the dwarf galaxy problem and the cuspy halo problem. Eternal inflation, in which universal inflation ends locally here and there in a random fashion, each end-point leading to a bubble universe, expanding from its own big bang. The universe may have positive, negative, or zero spatial curvature depending on its total energy density. The Doppler redshift is based on special relativity, which does not consider the expansion of space. One proposed refinement to avoid this would-be singularity is to develop a correct treatment of quantum gravity. For baryogenesis to occur, the Sakharov conditions must be satisfied. Some also argue that nothing cannot exist or that non-existence might never have been an option.Quantum fluctuations, or other laws of physics that may have existed at the start of the Big Bang could then create the conditions for matter to occur. Big Bang lattice model, states that the universe at the moment of the Big Bang consists of an infinite lattice of fermions, which is smeared over the fundamental domain so it has rotational, translational and gauge symmetry. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle predicts that during the inflationary phase there would be quantum thermal fluctuations, which would be magnified to cosmic scale. Problems and related issues in physics See also: List of unsolved problems in physics As with any theory, a number of mysteries and problems have arisen as a result of the development of the Big Bang theory. While the Big Bang model is well established in cosmology, it is likely to be refined. : Astronomers often refer to the cosmological red-shift as a normal Doppler shift, which is a misconception. Before this discovery, all other astronomical objects have been observed to contain heavy elements that are formed in stars. Shown from top to bottom are a closed universe with positive curvature, a hyperbolic universe with negative curvature and a flat universe with zero curvature. A cosmological constant problem, sometimes called the "most embarrassing problem in physics", results from the apparent discrepancy between the measured energy density of dark energy, and the one naively predicted from Planck units. Eventually, black holes would evaporate by emitting Hawking radiation. The horizon problem results from the premise that information cannot travel faster than light. Grand unified theories predicted topological defects in space that would manifest as magnetic monopoles. Galactic evolution and distribution Main articles: Galaxy formation and evolution and Structure formation Detailed observations of the morphology and distribution of galaxies and quasars are in agreement with the current state of the Big Bang theory. The Big Bang was "small": It is misleading to visualize the Big Bang by comparing its size to everyday objects. These require that baryon number is not conserved, that C-symmetry and CP-symmetry are violated and that the universe depart from thermodynamic equilibrium. Inflation predicts that the primordial fluctuations are nearly scale invariant and Gaussian, which has been accurately confirmed by measurements of the CMB. Hubble's law describes velocity that results from expansion space, rather than space. A process called baryogenesis was hypothesized to account for the asymmetry. Proposed solutions to some of the problems in the Big Bang model have revealed new mysteries of their own. Although they may appear identical for nearby galaxies, it may cause confusion if the behavior of distant galaxies is understood through the Doppler redshift. Dark energy, though speculative, solves numerous problems. The problem is that any small departure from the critical density grows with time, and yet the universe today remains very close to flat. Big e dating. Star formation would cease with the consumption of interstellar gas in each galaxy; stars would burn out, leaving white dwarfs, neutron stars, and black holes. The agreement is excellent for deuterium, close but formally discrepant for He, and off by a factor of two for Li; in the latter two cases there are substantial systematic uncertainties. Alternatively, if the density in the universe were equal to or below the critical density, the expansion would slow down but never stop. Hubble's law violates the special theory of relativity: Hubble's law predicts that galaxies that are beyond Hubble Distance recede faster than the speed of light. Modern observations of accelerating expansion imply that more and more of the currently visible universe will pass beyond our event horizon and out of contact with us. In a universe of finite age this sets a limit-the particle horizon-on the separation of any two regions of space that are in causal contact. It is not yet understood why the universe has more matter than antimatter

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